This circuit operates a LED in pulsing mode, i.e. the LED goes from off state, lights up gradually, then dims gradually, etc.
This operation mode is obtained by a triangular wave generator formed by two op-amps contained in a very cheap 8 pin DIL case IC. Q1 ensures current buffering, in order to obtain a better load drive.
R4 & C1 are the timing components: using the values shown in the parts list, the total period is about 4 seconds.
* The most satisfying results are obtained adopting for R4 a value ranging from 220K to 4M7.
* Adopting for R4 a value below 220K, the pulsing effect will be indistinguishable from a normal blinking effect.
* The LED can be any type and color.
* You can use a filament lamp bulb instead of the LED, provided it is rated in the range 3.2 to 6V, 200mA max.
* Using a bulb as a load, R6 must be omitted.
* Voltage supply range can be 4 to 6V: 4.5V is the best compromise.
* Do not supply the circuit with voltages exceeding 6V: it will work less good and Q1 could be damaged when a bulb will be used as the load.
* At 6V supply, increase R6 value to 100 Ohm.
Copyright Flavio DellepianeParts:R1,R2___________4K7 1/4W Resistors
R3_____________22K 1/4W Resistor
R4______________2M2 1/4W Resistor (See Notes)
R5_____________10K 1/4W Resistor
R6_____________47R 1/4W Resistor (See Notes)